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The angular resolution is: the typical value of the angular separation between the planet and the star is about 0.1. Precise surface photometry of stars and extrasolar planets is also made possible by the K2 mission [@2014PASP..126..398H] because it provides images with a very high-contrast. The $K2$ images are obtained with a special Lyot coronagraph, with a throughput of the order of the average system transmission. The $K2$ telescope is equipped with an adaptive optics system which allows to improve the angular resolution from the 4 to 2 mas. The $K2$ mission’s spatial resolution has allowed to produce the highest resolution image ever obtained of a stellar surface [@2016ApJ...826..141T]. This technique could be used to study the spectral characteristics of planets. The optimal wavelength range for observing the planet would be between the blue (380 nm) and the red (840 nm) [@2012ApJ...752..143M]. In such case, the planet light could be nulled by a factor of 10^-6^, more than 100 times better than in the visible light. Spectroscopy ------------ The use of spectrographs allows the study of the planetary atmosphere. Many projects propose or use infrared spectrographs. These  are operated from the ground [@2012ASPC..458..359H; @2014SPIE.9147E..1QF; @2017ApJ...834..195M] but also from space [@2015ApJ...811..108D] and from the future James Webb Space Telescope, JWST [@2018arXiv180203548F]. The project proposes to use a spectrograph with a resolution of 10^6^ at the shortest wavelengths (1 μm) and 10^3^ at the longest wavelengths (14 μm) in a way similar to the instrument HARPS-N [@2016SPIE.9904E..1CK; @2016SPIE.9904E..1IW; @2017arXiv170605193B]. The project [@2016SPIE.9904E..1FZ; @2016SPIE.9904E..1OQ] proposes to use a 30 m telescope with a cryogenic spectrograph [@2018SPIE10702E



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Machform 4 5 Nulled 15 dengar

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